Urinary System

Urinary System

Urinary System
1. Which of the following functions would the kidney not perform?
a. storing urine
b. waste excretion
c. fluid balance preservation
d. vitamin D synthesis regulation
e. RBC synthesis is regulated.
2. Bowman’s capsule contains a network of capillaries known as the
a. recta vasa
b. glomerulus.
c. capillary peritubular
d. capillary proximal convoluted
e. arteriole efferent
3. Select the term that does not belong here.
a. glomerulus
b. densa macula
c. cells juxtaglomerular
d. apparatus juxtaglomerular
e. arteriole afferent
4. The vasa recta is a subset of the vasa recta.
a. glomerulus.
b. arteriole afferent
c. arteriole efferent
d. capillary peritubular
e. The interlobular artery
5. The portion of cardiac output that passes through the kidneys is referred to as the
a. The renal fraction
b. fraction of filtration
c. fraction of clearance
d. The rate of glomerular flow.
e. The cardiac fraction
6. The majority of the water in the filtrate is reabsorbed.
a. protruding convoluted tubule
b. Henle’s descending loop
c. Henle’s ascending loop
d. tubule of the distal convolute
e. a collection duct
7. Urea is
a. cells of the distal convoluted tubule secreted into the filtrate
b. Diffuse from the collecting ducts into the medulla’s interstitial fluid, then into the descending loop of Henle.
c. The nephron completely reabsorbed
d. The collecting duct cells actively transport substances into the filtrate.
e. None of these options are correct.
8. There is a countercurrent mechanism in place.
a. arterioles afferent and efferent
b. Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus
c. the distal and proximal tubules
d. Henle’s loop is the only one.
e. both the Henle loop and the vasa recta
9. Filtrate reabsorption that is not controlled by hormones is known as
a. active.
b. obligatory.
c. facultative.
d. countercurrent.
e. nonessential.
10. The hormone angiotensin II
a. is an effective vasodilator.
b. stimulates the secretion of aldosterone
c. Renin action produces angiotensin II from angiotensin I.
d. acts on the collecting ducts to increase water reabsorption
e. lowers blood pressure
Water Electrolytes and Acid-Base Balance (Chapter 27)
1. Which of the following fluid compartments has the least amount of water in it?
a. plasma
b. compartment interstitial
c. compartment intracellular
d. compartment extracellular
e. cytoplasm
2. Plasma and interstitial fluid differ in that plasma contains significantly more ____ than interstitial fluid.
a. protein
b. bicarbonate
c. chloride
d. volume of water
e. Ions of hydrogen
3. Which of the following events takes place last?
a. Renin secretion by the kidney
b. The adrenal cortex secretes aldosterone.
c. Reabsorption of sodium by the kidney tubules
d. angiotensinogen (angiotensin II)
e.g., angiotensin I (angiotensin II).
4. Which of the following situations could stimulate increased ADH secretion?
a. elevated renal blood flow
b. elevated blood osmolality
c. increased production of atrial natriuretic hormone
d. elevated blood pressure
e. lower blood osmolality
5. The potassium levels in the body are controlled by
a. ADH.
b. PTH.
calcium calcitonin
d. the hormone aldosterone
e.g., insulin
6. The majority of the calcium in the body is found in the bones.
a. bones.
plasma b.
kidneys c.
d. The digestive tract.
Extracellular fluid, for example.
7. A decrease in serum levels stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion.
a. potassium concentrations
Calcium levels, b.
Levels of calcitonin
d. phosphate concentrations
Sodium levels, for example.
ECF osmolality has increased.
a. causes thirst.
ADH is inhibited by b.
c. stimulates renin secretion
d. boosts aldosterone secretion
e. reduces thirst
9. pH
a. rises with acidity
b. is calculated on a scale of 0 to 10.
c. denotes the concentration of hydrogen ions.
d. represents the sodium content of body fluids
e. has nothing to do with the amount of carbon dioxide in the body.
10. In acidosis renal compensation,
a. H+ secretion falls; bicarbonate excretion rises.

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b. H+ secretion falls while bicarbonate reabsorption rises.
c. Increased H+ secretion and bicarbonate reabsorption.
d. Increased H+ secretion and bicarbonate excretion.
e. H+ secretion falls; bicarbonate excretion falls.
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
Welcome to class
Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to
I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.
Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.
If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.
Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.
Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!
Hi Class,
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed


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