PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law essay assignment

PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law essay assignment

6. The oldest established mental health profession is:

a. psychiatry

b. social work

c. marriage and family therapy

d. psychiatric nursing

e. psychotherapy

7. Which of the following degrees does NOT indicate legitimate doctoral level training to be a Licensed Psychologist?


a. Ph.D.

b. Ed.D.

c. M.D.

d. Psy. D

8. Which professional organization represents marriage and family therapists?


a. ACA


c. APA


e. none of the above


9. Which professional(s) can NOT legitimately, by nature of standard training and practice, per- form psychometric assessment?

a. marriage and family therapist

b. counselor

c. psychologist

d. social worker

e. none of the above

10. The ABPP and ASPS credential applies to which field of mental health specialty?

a. Marriage and family therapy

b. Social work

c. Psychiatry

d. Psychiatric nursing

e. none of the above


1l. Informed consent generally requires that the counselor should reveal to the client information about:

a. the counselor’s credentials or training.

b. alternative treatments.

c. the potential benefits or detriments of treatment.

d. all of the above

12. A counselor’s primary responsibility is to the:

a. third party referral source.

b. judge who subpoenas a case file.

c. family of a competent adult client seen in individual counseling.

d. professional setting (employer) where the counselor works.

e. none of the above

13. Which of the following IS FALSE?

a. The primary responsibility of the counselor is to the referral source.

b. Nonprofessional counselor-client relationships should be avoided when possible.

c. Services must be fully described and explained to clients before they consent to treatment.

d. Sexual intimacy with clients is unethical.

14. Professional competence by definition involves:

a. the quality of provided services

b. informed consent

c. confidentiality

d. boundaries of professional activity

e. both a and d


15. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

a. Counselors can ethically practice any specialty in counseling, even without appropriate specialty training, if it is within the scope of practice of their license.

b. Cottone and Tarvydas believe the terms “dual” and “multiple” relationships should be abandoned.

c. Avoiding detrimental relationships with clients relates to the ethical principle of justice more than non maleficence.

d. People who refuse recommended counseling services must be coerced.

16. When a judge orders an ex offender to undergo therapy as part of the ex offender’s rehabilitation, this is called:

a. expert order of protection

b. legal privilege

c. professional responsibility

d. compulsory therapy

17. The Supreme Court decision in Jaffee v. Redmond provided what type of assistance to psycho- therapists in federal court cases?

a. eliminated their responsibility to testify as expert witnesses

b. upheld their ability to maintain confidential information through assertion of legal privilege

c. eliminated their ability to assert privilege in communication with clients

d. instructed counselors that privilege only exists between attorneys and their clients, not between counselors and their clients

18. Which of the following is an example of special circumstances that counselors may be faced with in relation to confidentiality and privilege?

a. counseling persons with HIV/AIDS

b. family/couples counseling

c. clients in drug/alcohol treatment

d. all of the above

19. An exception to confidentiality for psychologists and counselors serving in the military exists and focuses on which area most clearly?

a. responsibility to report generally negative attitudes of officers and enlisted personnel

b. report threats to military installations, weapons and integrity even when threats to specific persons have not been made

c. to report all counseling activities regardless of the content to their superiors on a regular basis

d. none of the above


20. According to Welch (2003), one of the most common types of malpractice liability in treatment services for mental health professionals is:

a. fraudulent billing

b. family treatment and forensic situations

c. dual relationships

d. group counseling

21. According to Arthur and Swanson (1993). clinical records should be written to include which of the following?

a. clear objective statements with behavioral descriptions

b. professional terminology not easily interpreted by legal counsel

c. jargon that does not clearly specify behavioral outcomes

d. little objective information; subjective thoughts of the counselor are of most importance

22. When assessing a client’s potential for harm, Beauchamp and Childress recommend the counselor assess primarily which elements?

a. probability of harm

b. magnitude of harm

c. physical vs. psychological nature of harm

d. both a and b are correct

23. Counselor values tend to determine the of counseling.

a. content

b. process

c. level of professional ism

d. lack of progress

24. Client values determine the of counseling.

a. process

b. level of progress

c. content

d. all of the above

25. Objectively applying a system of ethical rules and principles that a counselor may use to deter-

mine a right or moral decision about an ethical dilemma would be considered _

a. ethics of caring

b. virtue ethics

c. principle ethics

d. none of the above

Written Assignment for Unit One

Be sure to refer to the course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. Examine the evolution of counseling and counseling psychology. Include the similarities, the differences, and the influence of the development in history over time upon current practice.

2. Analyze the roles of the different professionals within the mental health professions. What are their roles, levels of education, and primary functions in providing mental health treatment? Which professionals may seek specialty certification?

3. Analyze the Jaffee v. Redmond (1996) case and the implications this case has had for communication between counselor and client.

4. Compare the similarities and differences amongst the concepts of Relational Values, Virtues, and Ethics of Care? Give examples that illustrate each concept.

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Why is practice in solving mock ethical dilemmas, as well as working to address actual dilemmas under supervision of an educator or experienced clinician important?

a. Because ethical decision making skills are very easily learned.

b. Ethical situations happen infrequently and counselors shouldn’t worry so much about them.

c. Ethical decision making skills do not come automatically or easily and require practice, supervision and diligence in learning.

d. Because you will never be able to come up with the “correct” answer.

2. The ethical decision-making model introduced by Cottone is based upon what theoretical model?

a. general psychologically based models

b. post-positivism

c. social constructivism

d. none of the above

3. What does social constructivism mean to ethical decision making?

a. Decisions cannot be viewed as occurring internally (by an individual in isolation).

b. Decisions must be selected by the counselor weighing internal feelings and cognitions.

c. Decisions are best when made by a single individual.

d. Counselors must deliberate over a decision for a lengthy period of time.

4. Ethical decision making models often provide a series of steps for making an ethical choice, however they may fail to describe which of the following:

a. the consequences that can occur when an ineffective course of action is taken

b. how the choice in a specific course of action occurs (an exploratory framework for the decision process itself)

c. how values are weighed by the decision maker

d. a II of the above are correct


5. In the social constructivism model, the decision to breach an ethical standard or a challenge to a counselor’s professional ethics is a decision that is derived from past and present interactions. Which of the following forces come into play in this situation?

a. biological and social forces that affect interactions in one way or the other

b. biological forces

c. social forces

d. psychological determinants



PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

6. According to the social constructivism process in ethical decision making, when consensualizing fails, then parties may engage in reflective interaction to accomplish:

a. an agreement on the decision to be made

b. to determine whether arbitration should be undertaken

c. be able to make the decision on their own

d. to hold firm to their original position

7. Cottone’s model of ethical decision making is based on:

a. purely social-relational theory

b. purely relational model

c. ethical principles

d. psychologically-based ethical decision making

8. When colleagues engage in bullying, harassment, or emotional abuse of an individual within the workplace, this would be described as:

a. a normal difference of opinion that occasionally occurs within a workplace

b. a case of mobbing within an organizational culture

c. relational issues that are normal when people work closely with one another

d. individuals who are experiencing conflict due to holding similar values

9. Which of the following characteristics may place a work environment at risk for mobbing?

a. having more staff than is necessary (overstaffing)

b. increased stress in the workplace

c. unethical activities

d. both band c are correct

10. Several states have acknowledged that mental injury can result from excessive stress on the job and this phenomenon has been called:

a. mental health injury

b. overstress syndrome

c. organizational mental injury

d. occupational mental injury

11. Which of the following may happen to a counselor that assumes the role of a “whistleblower”?

a. mobbing

b. mixed support from superiors and administration

c. potential life changing experience and increased stress

d. all of the above

12. At present there are several corporations that are establishing company policies that support an individual’s right to be employed in an environment that is free from mobbing.

a. True, this is happening at present.

b. False that is something for the future.

c. False, it would never work.

d. none of the above are correct

13. The way people would characterize a system’s general practices and procedures, such as the sense of safety or fear or retribution that a counselor may feel when faced with big or small decisions within this context would be described as?

a. climate

b. ethical climate

c. organizational climate

d. none of the above

14. To provide a service outside of the realm of medical psychotherapy and then bill it as medical psychotherapy is an example of:

a. sliding fee scales

b. fraudulent billing

c. double billing

d. all of the above

15. Pro bono publico refers to what?

a. Working as a counselor for the state, or county and serving the

general public.

b. Being an expert witness at a criminal trial.

c. A Spanish speaking Counselor or Therapist.

d. none of the above


16. This term describes when a diagnosis is more severe than diagnostically justified to ensure adequate insurance payment for the anticipated treatments.

a. double billing

b. over diagnosis

c. fraudulent diagnostics

d. embellishment diagnostics

e. none of the above

17. It is standard practice to destroy case records generally years after services have

been terminated.

a. 10-12

b. 2-4

c. 5-7

d. none of the above- by law case records are never to be destroyed.

18. Areas of major ethical concern in working with people with HIV include:

a. confidentiality

b. informed consent

c. stigma

d. both a and b are correct

19. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act do Which of the following for individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS?

a. protect individuals who are diagnosed with HIVIAIDS from undue discrimination

b. do not protect individuals with HIV/AIDS from undue discrimination

c. protect only individuals with HIV from undue discrimination

d. protect only individuals with AIDS from undue discrimination

20. The Tarasoff outcome directs the counselor in which of the following actions when considering the safety of a third party?

a. counselors are not responsible for warning third parties they may be in danger

b. counselors have a responsibility for third parties that they know may be in danger

c. cannot breach confidentiality no matter what the situation

d. may breach confidentiality only when suicide is involved