Nursing Pathophysiology 2

Nursing Pathophysiology 2

Nursing Pathophysiology 2
Pathophysiology in Nursing: As an advanced practice nurse, you will examine patients who present with a variety of disorders. You must therefore understand how the body normally works in order to recognize when it is reacting to changes. When changes occur in body systems, the body frequently responds with compensatory mechanisms. These compensatory mechanisms, such as adaptive responses, could be indications of changes or underlying disorders. In the clinical setting, these responses, along with other patient factors, are used to help you make a diagnosis.
Consider the following Nursing Pathophysiology scenarios:
Scenario 1: Jennifer, a 2-year-old girl, arrives with her mother. Jennifer has been “running a temperature” for the last three days, which worries Mom. Jennifer, according to her mother, is generally healthy and has no significant medical history. She was in good health until three days ago, when she became fussy, refused to eat her breakfast, and refused to sit still for her favorite television cartoon. She has had a fever on and off since then, ranging from 101oF to today’s high of 103.2oF. Mom has been giving her ibuprofen, but when her fever reached 103.2oF today, she felt she needed to be evaluated. A physical examination reveals a 2-year-old female of appropriate height and weight who appears acutely ill. Her skin is scorching and parched. The tympanic membranes are slightly reddened around the edges, but otherwise appear normal. With 4+ tonsils and diffuse exudates, the throat is erythematous. On the left side, the anterior cervical nodes are easily palpable and clearly tender to touch. The child expresses that her throat hurts “a lot” and that swallowing is painful. A temperature of 102.8oF, a pulse rate of 128 beats per minute, and a respiratory rate of 24 beats per minute are revealed by vital signs.
Scenario No. 2:
Jack, a 27-year-old man, presents with hand redness and irritation. He claims to have never had a problem like this before, but about two weeks ago he noticed that both of his hands were extremely red and flaky. He denies any discomfort, claiming that they are occasionally “a little bit hot,” but otherwise fine. He has no idea why they are so red. His wife suggested that he get some steroid cream because he might have an allergy. Except for recurrent ear infections as a child, Jack has no known allergies or significant medical history. He denies any traumatic injury or known irritant exposure. He works as a maintenance engineer in a newspaper building and admits to working with abrasive solvents and chemicals on a regular basis. Normally, he wears protective gloves, but they appear to be in short supply lately, so he sometimes does not use them. He has been exposed to some of these cleaning fluids, but says it never hurt and that he always washed his hands afterward.
3rd scenario:
Martha, 65, recently retired from her job as an administrative assistant at a local hospital. Her medical history is notable for hypertension, which she has been managing for years with hydrochlorothiazide. She reports that she has been having a lot of trouble sleeping lately, that she has a “racing heartbeat,” and that she is losing her appetite. She emphasizes that she is not as hungry as she once was. Her 87-year-old mother moved into her home a few years ago, which was the only significant change in her life recently. Mom had always been in good health, but she fell down the stairs and broke her hip. Her recovery was difficult because she has lost a lot of mobility and independence and must rely on her daughter for help with daily activities. Martha admits that it is not the retirement she had hoped for, but as an only child, she is content to care for her mother. Mom gets up early in the morning, bathes every day, and has always eaten five small meals per day. Martha has to devote a significant amount of time to caring for her mother, so the fact that she is sleeping and eating less is almost a “blessing.” She is concerned about her own health, however, and wants to know why she suddenly requires less sleep at her age.

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Nursing Pathophysiology Preparation:
Examine the three scenarios, as well as Chapter 6 of Huether and McCance’s book.
Identify the pathophysiology of the disorders presented in the scenarios, as well as any associated changes. Consider the adaptive reactions to the changes.
Examine the media in this week’s Learning Resources titled “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).” Then, from the scenarios, choose one of the disorders you identified. Create a mind map for the disorder you’ve chosen using examples from the media. Consider the disorder’s epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis, as well as any adaptive responses to changes.
To finish Nursing Pathophysiology:
Write a 2- to 3-page paper addressing the following topics:
Explain the pathophysiology of the disorders depicted in the scenarios, as well as any associated changes. Make sure to describe the patients’ adaptive reactions to the changes.
Create a mind map of your chosen disorder (put a picture). Include the disorder’s epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis, as well as any adaptive responses to changes.
* For citations and references, use APA 6th edition.
* Ensure that all of your references are no more than 5 years old (between 2011 to 2016). All of your references should be from textbooks, journal articles, or websites ending (evidenced based websites such as CDC, NIH or ADA). Please do not cite Wikipedia, WebMD,.com websites, or Up to date in your work.
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