Ethics MCQs

1. When people are just concerned with compliance with laws or professional

standards (e.g. codes of ethics), what level of ethics is involved?

b. aspirational

c. mandatory

d. principled

e. unprincipled

2. Which one of the following statements is NOT CONSISTENT with the

philosophy of Nietzsche?

a. the theory of evolution

b. we should be assisting the development of survival of the fittest

c. we should be directed by pity

d. the weak and the failures should perish

3. When there is a discussion of “theory” as related to judgments of right and

wrong, the discussion is probably one of:

a. philosophical morality

b. professional ethics

c. common morality

d. philosophical ethics

e. none of the above

4. Which of the following is NOT listed in your text as part of the professional

structure which governs ethics for counselors?

a. the courts

b. colleges and universities

c. professional organizations that maintain and enforce a mandatory code of


d. professional regulatory bodies that are enforcers of mandatory codes

e. none of the above

5. There are different types of accreditation. Beyond a college or university’s

accreditation to offer degrees, there is accreditation for programs, typically


a. diplomate accreditation

b. professional accreditation

c. specialty accreditation

d. board approval



6. The oldest and most widely recognized professional counseling specialty

designation is the credential.

a. A.C.A.


c. C.R.C.C.

d. C.R.C.

e. M.F.T.

7. A voluntary means for professionals to identify themselves as trained and

qualified specialists is:

a. licensure

b. certification

c. internship

d. accreditation

e. none of the above

8. Which professional(s) can NOT legitimately, by nature of standard training

and practice, perform psychometric assessment?

a. social worker

b. counselor

c. psychologist

d. marriage and family therapist

e. none of the above

9. The ASPP and ASPS credential applies to which field of mental health


a. Marriage and Family Therapy

b. Psychology

c. Psychiatry

d. Social Work

e. Psychiatric Nursing

10. Which of the following degrees does NOT indicate legitimate doctoral level

training to be a licensed Psychologist?

a. Ph.D.

b. Ed.D.

c. Psy.D

d. none of the above



– Professional Eth ics and the Law

11. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

a. Counselors can ethically practice any specialty in counseling, even without

appropriate specialty training, if it is within the scope of practice of their


b. Cottone and Tarvydas believe the terms “dual” and “multiple”

relationships should be abandoned.

c. Avoiding detrimental relationships with clients relates to the ethical

principle of justice more than nonmaleficence.

d. People who refuse recommended counseling services must be coerced.

12. When a judge orders an ex offender to undergo therapy as part of the ex-

offender’s rehabilitation, this is called:

a. expert order of protection

b. compulsory therapy

c. professional responsi bi I ity

d. legal privilege

13. Professional competence by definition involves:

a. the quality of provided services

b. boundaries of professional activity

c. confidentiality

d. informed consent

e. a and b

14. Having sex with a client is:

a. unethical counseling practice

b. only allowed after the client and therapist relationship has been

terminated for at least one year

c. acceptable with a written agreement and a waiver of ethical rights

d. none of the above

15. The Tarasoff decision refers to what?

a. The duty of an ethics board to suspend licensure after a clear ethics


b. The duty of a therapist to keep confidentiality even when called as a

witness in court cases.

c. The duty of a therapist to break confidentiality when someone makes a

direct threat.

d. none of the above



– Professional Eth ies and the Law

16. A counselor’s primary responsibility is to the:

a. third party if they are the ones paying the bill

b. judge who subpoenas a case file

c. family of a competent adult client seen in individual counseling

d. client, and the client only

e. all of the above

17. The term that pertains to the legal right of clients to prevent their confidential

communications from being revealed in legal proceedings is:

a. privacy

b. confidentiality

c. privileged communication

d. informed consent

18. When assessing a client’s potential for harm, Beauchamp and Childress

recommend the counselor assess primarily which element(s)?

a. probability of harm

b. physical vs. psychological nature of harm

c. magnitude of harm

d. both a and c are correct

19. According to Welch (2003), one of the most common types of malpractice

liability in treatment services for mental health professionals is:

a. fraudulent billing

b. dual relationships

c. family treatment and forensic situations

d. group counseling

20. Which of the following conditions is NOT a required element of informed


a. capacity

b. voluntariness

c. comprehension

d. literacy



2l. law addresses conduct required by or prohibited by all

individuals and is enforced by governmental legal authorities.

a. Professional

b. Case

c. Civil law

d. Criminal

22. Client values determine the of counseling.

a. content

b. level of progress

c. process

d. all of the above

23. Counselor values tend to determine the of counseling.

a. process

b. content

c. level of professionalism

d. rate of progress

24. Principle ethics can be said to be based primarily upon which of the


a. western culture

b. religion

c. male-oriented worldview

d. all of the above

e. a and conly

25. Why has the ethics of care approach been criticized?

a. The focus is primarily societal with lack of concern for the individual.

b. Application is limited to the health sciences.

c. There is a lack of a coherent definition.

d. all of the above



26. The ethical decision-making model introduced by Cottone is based upon what

theoretical model?

a. general psychologically based models

b. post-positivism

c. social constructivism

d. none of the above

27. Ethical decision making models often provide a series of steps for making an

ethical choice, however they may fail to describe which of the following:

a. the consequences that can occur when an ineffective course of action is


b. how the choice in a specific course of action occurs (an exploratory frame

work for the decision process itself)

c. how values are weighed by the decision maker

d. all of the above

28. According to the social constructivism process in ethical decision making,

when consensualizing fails, then parties may engage in reflective interaction

to _

a. accompl ish an agreement on the decision to be made

b. determine whether arbitration should be undertaken

c. be able to make the decision on their own

d. hold firm to their original position

29. Ethical dilemmas are atn).

a. sign of the importance of professional judgment

b. failure of ethical codes

c. affirmation that one is “practicing” a profession

d. only a and c of the above

e. all of the above

30. Hare argued that the intuitive level of everyday decision making was not

sufficient and is superceded by another level of moral decision making. What

is that level?

a. reflective

b. critical thinking

c. consu Itative

d. fact finding



31. Cottone’s model of ethical decision making is based on:

a. purely social-relational model

b. purely relational theory

c. ethical principles

d. psychologically-based ethical decision making

32. When colleagues engage in bullying, harassment, or emotional abuse of an

individual within the workplace, this would be described as:

a. a normal difference of opinion that occasionally occurs within a


b. individuals who are experiencing conflict due to holding similar values

c. relational issues that are normal when people work closely with one an


d. a case of mobbing within an organizational culture

e. all of the above

33. Several states have acknowledged that mental injury can result from

excessive stress on the job and this phenomenon has been called:

a. occupational mental injury

b. overstress syndrome

c. organizational mental injury

d. mental health injury

34. At present there are several corporations that are establishing company

policies that support an individual’s right to be employed in an environment

that is free from mobbing.

a. false, it would never work

b. false that is something for the future

c. true, this is happening at present

d. none of the above are correct

35. Professional roles within an organizational culture are constructed in response

to which of the following?

a. professional practices

b. institutional expectations

c. personal needs

d. both a and b are correct

e. all of the above



36. Pro bono publico refers to what?

a. working as a counselor for the state, or county and serving the

general public

b. being an expert witness at a criminal trial

c. serving a client at no charge

d. none of the above

e. a spanish speaking counselor

37. It is standard practice to destroy case records generally years after

services have been terminated.

a. 10-12

b. 4-6

c. 8-10

d. none of the above

38. Regarding the ethical issues surrounding complimentary and alternative

medicine, which of the following statements is true?

a. The current status quo does not include a “don’t ask/don’t tell” approach.

b. Managed care typically never rei mburses for CAMs.

c. CAM advocates may be denying the role of traditional medicine.

d. Individuals who choose CAMs as a treatment forfeit their right to


39. Areas of major ethical concern in working with people with HIV include:

a. stigma

b. informed consent

c. confidentiality

d. both band c are correct

40. A rehabilitation counselor working for a managed care company is concerned

about the limitations the company is placing on the treatment of the clients

they are seeing. The next time this counselor sees a client, they place a more

severe diagnosis in the clients chart in an attempt to obtain an increased

number of counseling sessions. This behavior is unethical and is considered

which of the following?

a. downcoding

b. underdiagnosing

c. bartering

d. bono publico

e. overdiagnosing



41. Passive euthanasia would best be defined as:

a. rational suicide

b. intentional termination of life

c. mercy killing

d. none of the above

42. The study of the entire set of human genes, the assembly of the gene

sequence, gene expression and the relationship between different gene

sequences is called:

a. genomics

b. genetics

c. human genome project

d. genetic decoding

e. none of the above

43. A type of test administration that especially does not transfer well to

computerized assessment is:

a. vocational interest testing

b. aptitude testing

c. personality testing

d. none of the above

44. According to the text, which of the following is (are) the most likely reason(s)

why counselors may not purchase adequate computer safety systems to

protect cl ient data?

a. ignorance

b. presumed unlikelihood of unethical file disclosure

c. amount of installation time required

d. a and b only

e. all of the above

45. HIPPA rules require that the counselor disclose policies related to the use

and disclosure of protected health information and that this occur:

a. within 24 hours of the first treatment contact

b. within 48 hours of the first treatment contact

c. within a week of the first treatment contact

d. none of the above



46. The ethical codes of APA and ACA require computer assisted assessment

software developers to provide empirical evidence of safety and effectiveness

prior to making claims as to the effectiveness of their product. What is the

situation regarding ethical standards on the provision of evidence before

developers of self-help or therapeutic software market this material?

a. They must provide evidence of superior results when compared to in-vivo


b. They must provide evidence of training for counselors prior to use.

c. They must provide evidence of safety and effectiveness.

d. No evidence of safety and effectiveness is required.

47. As defined by NBCC and others, the practice of professional counseling and

information delivery that occurs when the client(s) and counselor are in

separate or remote locations and utilize electronic means to communicate

over the I nternet is best defined as:

a. techno intervention

b. web therapy

c. web counseling

d. unethical

48. These terms are outdated and possibly harmful concepts, but were previously

used in counselor training programs several decades ago.

a. minority

b. race

c. multiculturalism

d. a and b only

e. none of the above

49. The tendency to treat others relative to one’s own cultural perspective with an

apparent disregard for cultural differences is called:

a. cultural bias

b. cultural deficit

c. multiculturalism

d. none of the above

50. As a counselor you provide counseling services to individuals from different

cultures than your own. You would be providing this type of counseling:

a. cultural

b. cl ient centered

c. transcultural

d. cross-cultural



51. As a second generation Polish American counselor in a rural mental health

center that serves a primarily Hispanic population you are frequently involved

in helping relationships with individuals who have a socially constructed

worldview that differs from your own. You would be providing this type of

cou nse ling:

a. multicultural

b. transcultural

c. bi-cultural

d. client centered

e. none of the above

52. A professional advocacy issue related to social justice of which counselors

need to be aware when examining data obtained from the U.S. Census of

2000 is the:

a. identification of single race only status

b. exclusion of Asian populations as a racial category

c. inclusion of three or more races category

d. exclusion of Latino populations as a racial category

53. Due to the lack of clarity in professional codes of ethics related to

multicultural situations, counselors may find themselves faced with engaging


a. responsible disobedience

b. dual relationships

c. illegal activity

d. immoral activity

e. both a and d

54. A counselor who utilizes the terms culturally disadvantaged or cultural deficit

may cause harm by:

a. using terms that are stigmatizing and cause emotional damage

b. placing a psychological assignment on individuals or a group that may

impact their perceived ability to meet or exceed members of a dominate


c. causing the counselor to have increased and inappropriate expectations

of a client

d. all of the above



55. Imperative to the field of marriage and family therapy is the idea of:

a. psychoanylitic theory

b. the ‘traditional’ family

c. systemic relationships

d. all of the above

56. Which association has the “clinical member” category of membership?

a. APA


c. ACA


e. none of the above

57. The idea of was affirmed by the Declaration of Helsinki, after Nazi

doctors at concentration camps were found to have done harmful experiments

on ethnic groups.

a. informed consent

b. confidentiality

c. moral responsibility

d. the Hippocratic Oath

e. none of the above

58. Which is NOT one of the interventions that school counselors use to

provide direct services in their school?

a. counseling

b. collaboration with teachers

c. coordination

d. consu Itation

e. none of the above

59. Arnold v. Board of Education of Escambia County (1989) was a court

decision regarding what?

a. a counselor having inappropriate sexual relations with a student

b. a counselor giving a student advice on abortion

c. a counselor withholding information about a threat which was made from

a client towards another person which resulted in that person’s death

d. a counselor failing to notify authorities of a student’s intent of suicide

e. none of the above



60. In determining what action a counselor should take in ethical dilemmas

presented by potentially detrimental relationships, which step to come to a

conclusion is NOT listed in your text?

a. Think carefully

b. Consult the necessary codes and experts

c. Identify the ethical issues

d. Temporarily suspend the relationship until a conclusion is made

e. none of the above

6l. Which of the following activities potentially could be viewed as an instance

of self harm?

a. reckless sexual behavior

b. cult membership

c. eating disorder

d. all of the above are correct

e. on Iy a and c are correct

62. Which statement is true regarding the federal regulations about minor

students and substance abuse treatment?

a. The student may go though the entire treatment process without the

parents’ knowledge.

b. Parents automatically must be notified of the student’s enrollment in

treatment, but not progress.

c. Parents must be notified of the student’s enrollment only if the parent

requests this information.

d. none of the above is correct

63. A mental status examination:

a. involves placing electrodes on the individual’s scalp to monitor brain


b. involves feeling the individual’s scalp to assess lumps or bumps that may

i nd icate over development of the brai n

c. is a structured interview designed to promote raising the person’s status to

a higher mental level

d. is a structured interview designed to provide a controlled interpersonal

setting for the emergence of signs and symptoms of a mental disorder



64. The organization most representative of the mental health counselor’s

interests is the:


b. ACA



e. none of the above

65. As per your text, which is NOT one of the roles of the mental health


a. rehabilitation

b. remediation of maladaption

c. improving quality of life

d. prevention of problems

e. none of the above

66. Which of the following is NOT one of the three core factors in vocational


a. knowledge of occupations

b. the ability to understand relationships between self and information

about occupations

c. effective decision making skills

d. clear self understanding

67. To practice career counseling according to the minimum ethical standards

established by NCDA, counselors must demonstrate proficiency in:

a. rehabilitation counseling

b. psychoanalysis and psychotherapy

c. career counseling competencies

d. psychoanalysis

e. all of the above

68. This is granted only through statute and legal precedent and the types of

professionals covered by this privilege vary by jurisdiction.

a. confidentiality

b. privileged communication

c. therapeutic communication

d. counseling relationship


69. According to Pope (1999) when clients first present for career counseling it

is important to assess how much involvement both the is

(are) needed by the client in their decision making process.

a. extended family and community

b. potential employer and former employer

c. significant other and children

d. former employer and family

e. none of the above

70. As a counselor, if the ethical values at your place of employment are in

conflict with your professional ethics, what should you do?

a. Stay on the job because there are some things you cannot change.

b. Seriously consider resigning from your position.

c. Talk with your co-workers about their thoughts.

d. Nothing, for there is nothing you can do about corporate culture.

71. The person who is credited historically with defining practice in the field of

career or vocational guidance is:

a. Talcott Parsons

b. Parson Talcott

c. Parson Frank

d. none of the above

72. Clients of career counselors who are members of the NCDA (and thereby

bound by the NCDA Ethical Standards), but who receive career counseling

in schools, colleges or universities where the counselor is not required to

be licensed by the state, should be primarily concerned with limits of:

a. privacy

b. responsibility

c. maintenance of records

d. privileged communication

e. none of the above

73. Related to privileged communication and group counseling, privileged


a. may not stand, depending on the wording of the relevant statutes and

case law

b. historically has been respected in group counseling

c. can be guaranteed in all cases with a licensed professional

d. prevents gossip about cases to uninvolved third parties in informal




74. If a group of minors is being counseled, the parents of the minors:

a. must respect the counselor/client privilege of confidentiality

b. have the right to information about the nature and content of counseling

c. have the right to attend a group session as a chaperone

d. all of the above

75. CRCC provides code of ethics enforcement for which of the following?

a. individual members of ACA and ARCA

b. individuals who hold the CRCC certification

c. individual members of NRA and NRCA

d. individuals who hold the CRC certification

76. If the counselor holds the culturally dominant high level of value regarding

trad itiona I work, he or she may not react positively to i nd ivid ua Is who wish to

work in which area?

a. factory setti ngs

b. in-home as caregivers

c. only part time to pursue avocational interests

d. all of the above

e. band conly

77. The collaborative consortium of key rehabilitation counseling professional

organizations formed in 2004 is the:

a. Alliance for Rehabilitation Counseling

b. American Rehabilitation Counselors United

c. National Rehabilitation Association

d. Rehabilitation Counseling Consortium

78. The two major professional organizations for rehabilitation counselors are:


b. APA and ARCA


d. ARCAA and NRC

e. none of the above



79. According to the CRC code of ethics, counselors are discouraged from having

any sexual relationships with former clients, however the code does bar such

a relationship before what period of time has passed?

a. 1 year

b. 3 years

c. 5 years

d. 10 years

e. sexual relationships are NEVER allowed with former clients

80. Addictions counseling requires:

a. no training at all if one is a recovering addict

b. a graduate degree in psychology with a focus on addictions

c. only a license (to practice ethically)

d. a Bachelor’s degree

e. none of the above

81. This organization is the largest organization serving addiction counselors,

educators, and other health care professionals who deal with addiction.


b. APA

c. ACA


e. none of the above

82. Twelve-step group members are:

a. required by law to maintain confidentiality

b. involved in groups directed and facilitated by professional counselors

c. required by law to avoid dual relationships

d. none of the above

83. The 12-step approach of Alcoholics Anonymous has been:

a. discredited by the majority of professionals because of the

religious nature of the program

b. shown to be most effective when combined with professional


c. proven to be effective only in the treatment of alcoholism, but

not with other addictions

d. none of the above



84. What is the NBCC specialty designation for counseling professionals who

work primarily with addiction?

a. MAC



d. none of the above

85. How many elements MUST be included to make a consent to release

information form valid?

a. 4

b. 6

c. 8

d. 10

e. none of the above

86. Which is NOT a setting listed in your text where substance abuse treatment

may be delivered?

a. outpatient setting

b. residential

c. alternative health clinic

d. none of the above

87. How many of the criteria for substance dependence must be present for the

diagnosis of alcohol or drug dependence?

a. two

b. four

c. six

d. none of the above

88. Which is NOT one of the requirements for the Master Addiction Counselor


a. 500 hours of substance abuse training

b. 3 years of full-time supervised experience in the field

c. Passing score on the nation exam

d. Doctora I degree

e. none of the above



– Professional Eth ics and the Law

89. A counselor is supervising a student counselor providing services in a

community mental health center. They have open communication and review

the student’s case files on a daily and weekly basis. The student had a client

he felt had the potential for suicide, however he didn’t know what to do. He

asked his supervisor for advice. The supervisor informed him that he had

worked with this client for an extensive period of time and the client had

demonstrated manipulative attention seeking behaviors with various

personnel employed at the agency. The client winds up committing suicide

by jumping off a freeway overpass, and in the process kills an innocent

driver. The victim’s family, upon learning the jumper had threatened suicide

before decides to bring charges against the mental health center. Who is

ultimately responsible for failing to protect the client from harm to himself?

a. the student

b. the supervisor

c. both the student and the supervisor equally

d. ultimately the supervisor but also the student

90. On an internship a male student is being supervised by a female. On a

consistent basis the supervisor makes remarks in a joking manner that focus

on the student’s bulging muscles, gorgeous tanned skin, physique and other

personal qualities. The student feels as if he is in a difficult situation since

he doesn’t want to fail his internship but feels uncomfortable about the

comments his supervisor frequently makes. This student is being confronted


a. sexual assault

b. sexual harassment

c. dual relationship

d. no professional restrictions to date his supervisor

91. To reduce the potential for ethical conflicts to occur within supervision, a

supervisor can:

a. use professional disclosure statements

b. supervise only in a group setting

c. develop formal supervision plans

d. both a and c are correct

92. Which of the following is (are) effective suggestions for supervisors to

consider to avoid malpractice lawsuits?

a. possess appropriate knowledge, skill and work habits

b. foster healthy, respectful relationships

c. have keen knowledge of self

d. all of the above



93. To be considered a qualified clinical supervisor, individuals in the field are

required to:

a. complete 12 semester hours of graduate-level coursework in supervision

b. be a licensed clinician for a period of at least 10 years

c. have a Doctoral degree

d. a and b only

e. none of the above

94. A student counselor is providing services to a client and audiotapes each of

the sessions for individual review with their supervisor and group review with

their fellow students. The client was not informed that their counselor was

a student in training or of the purpose of the audiotaping. The supervisor and

supervisee have violated which of the following?

a. client informed consent

b. client confidentiality

c. supervisee confidentiality

d. both a and b are correct

95. The ACS identifies content areas that training in clinical supervision

must include.

a. 5

b. 9

c. 13

d. 26

96. Related to potential ethical situations, supervisors often have which of the

following concerns?

a. Most code of professional ethics have limited information regarding

su pervision.

b. The supervisor must constantly examine the ethical issues that impact

both the client and the supervisee.

c. Regulations for clinical supervisors provided are ambiguous from a legal


d. both a and b are correct



97. Which is NOT one of Handelsman’s seven themes of positive ethics?

a. values and virtues

b. sensitivity and integration

c. ethics as innate self-care

d. ethical reasoning and decision making

e. none of the above

98. After a hearing, a license board makes a decision which could include

consequences. Which of the following is NOT a consequence as listed in your


a. paying a fine

b. revocation of a license

c. probation

d. reprimand

e. none of the above

99. Which of the following sources of ethical information has been given the

highest rating by certified counselors?

a. ACA ethical code

b. ACA Ethics Committee

c. ACA Journal of Counseling and Development

d. all of the above

e. a and conly

100. Licensure and certifying bodies will keep complaints of ethical misconduct

confidential, unless:

a. the complainant formally requests public revelation of the complain.

b. it is a case of sexual misconduct, in which case there is always revelation

of a complaint.

c. the jurisdiction requires hearings of such complaints open to the public.

d. never, they are always open to the public throughout the United States.

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