In nursing, as in life, we are constantly making decisions, some bigger than others, and some more difficult than others.
Think about a recent decision you made that required nursing judgment. Choose one you made at your job, or, if you are not employed, in a past nursing situation. Describe your process for decision-making or problem solving.
Decision-making research has emerged from various fields. Nursing science has built on this early research in decision-making to facilitate understanding and inform nursing education and practice to enhance patient care. A background in the evolution of decision-making research provides an understanding of factors important to decision-making and can inform future nursing research, practice and education.
Early decision-making research
Early decision-making research in economics included a consideration of the influence of motivating forces (Johansen & O’Brien,
2015; Simon, 1959). The decision-making process ends with fulfillment of the motivating force (Simon, 1959). In this research, fulfillment of the motivating force was referred to as satisficing to indicate that a satisfactory rather than ideal result is acceptable (Simon, 1959). This early work also describes the importance of perception as an influence on decision-making (Simon, 1959). The decision-maker’s perception is described as influenced by their environments, goals, and values (Simon, 1959). The combination of satisficing and perception emphasizes the importance of human elements to the decision-making process.
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Early medical decision-making theories focused on the approaches of coherence and correspondence (Hammond, 1996). Coherence explored the rationale behind a decision using a mathematical approach based on logic (Hammond, 1996). Using coherence, the decision-making process, rather than the end result, was evaluated (Hammond, 1996). Traditionally, physician decision-making was evaluated using coherence (Hammond, 1996). With correspondence, the accuracy of a decision was emphasized without regard for the rationale behind the decision and the experience level of the decision-maker was important to this process (Hammond, 1996). Coherence and correspondence were viewed as complimentary (Hammond, 1996). For the decision-making process, correspondence represents an inference stage and coherence provided the justification stage (Hammond, 1996). The work on correspondence and coherence stages of decision-making reflects the importance of both inference and justification to decision-making providing a more complete representation of the decision-making process.
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
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Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to
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Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.
Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question
- Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
- There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
- Include in-text citations in your response
- Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
- Follow APA-7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor
- A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
- Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
- Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
- Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
- Follow APA 7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
- Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
- Here are some helpful links
- Student paper example
- Citing Sources
- The Writing Center is a great resource
Other medical decision-making research explored the influence of experience. In describing the education of medical students it was observed that while students are taught a systematic approach to decision-making, experienced decision-makers appeared to make decisions without obviously following a formal decision-making procedure (Hamm, 1988). This informal decision-making procedure was intuition (Hamm, 1988). Intuition was described as going beyond merely a lack of analysis and included the experienced decision-makers’ depth of knowledge facilitating an ability to predict circumstances effectively (Hamm, 1988). The combination of intuitive and analytic approaches allow medical decision-makers, with varying level of experience, to make decisions in a variety of situations with differing contextual features (Hamm, 1988).